Prevalence of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders
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Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are a group of conditions affecting the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), the muscles of mastication and/or associated structures .The temporomandibular joint connects the mandible to the temporal bone. It can be felt by placing the finger just in front of the ear and open the mouth, as joints are mobile, the jaw can move smoothly up and down and side to side, facilitate the individual to talk, chew and yawn. Muscles attached to and surrounding the jaw joint controls its position and movement.
Disorders of the jaw joint and chewing may be a functional pain characterizes of; discomfort or pain in the muscles that control jaw function, Internal derangement of the joint which involves a displaced disc, dislocated jaw, or injury to the condyle. Arthritis refers to a group of degenerative/inflammatory joint disorders that can affect the temporomandibular joint.
TMD is a multi-factorial disorder, commonly associated with dental, medical and mental conditions such as posture, parafunctional habits, restorations, orth odontic treatment, emotional stress, trauma, and anatomy of the disk, path-physiology of the muscles, genetic and psychosocial factors (especially stress), in addition to age, and gender. It is not clear whether these factors are considered predispos ing or just concurrent factors.
In physical examination for temporomandibular disorders, measurement and recording of mandibular movements should be completed for opening, and lateral protrusive movements. The quality and symmetry of jaw movement should be noted and diagrammed. TMD can affect any patient regardless of age including children, or gender with varying signs and symptoms due to the variation of symptoms the diagnosis may be difficult.
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