The rhizome of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis or chinensis, called Rhizoma Paridis, was a traditional Chinese medicine and has been used for the treatment of various diseases for thousands of years, including fractures, parotitis, snake bite, hemostasis, and abscess with remarkable effect in the clinic .
Herba Epimedii is a famous Chinese edible herb with a long history of being used in complementary and alternative medicines in many countries. Herba Epimedii belongs to the genus Epimedium Linn, a member of the family Berberidaceae that includes Epimedii Folium and Epimedii Wushanensis Folium. Because it possesses the ability to dispel wind chill, tonify the kidneys and strengthen the bones and muscles, Herba Epimedii is typically prescribed for the treatment of sexual dysfunction, chronic nephritis, menstrual irregularity, osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases or asthma
In recent years, liver damage caused by rhubarb, Polygonum multiflorum, and other herbal Traditional Chinese Medicines has attracted extensive attention , and many studies have shown that anthraquinones are the main hepatotoxic components in P. multiflorum and in rhubarb, especially free anthraquinones such as emodin and aloe-emodin .
First, these compounds were tested on L-02 hepatocytes to screen for cytotoxicity. Then, the more toxic compounds were more extensively evaluated for hepatotoxicity, using biomarkers such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), glutathione (GSH), and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The mechanism of action of L-02 cell apoptosis induced by these components was studied using quantitative proteomics, the results of which were verified by Western blot. The results from this study may provide a reference for the causative compounds and mechanism of action of liver damage caused by anthraquinone-containing Traditional Chinese Medicines.
Thus, the hepatoxic mechanisms of Herba Epimedii may involve promoting damage to the cell structure, increased oxidative stress and the induction of apoptosis. The results of this study were consistent with those of prior in vivo and in vitro studies. However, exploration of the hepatotoxicity of Herba Epimedii is a complicated and comprehensive process, and further research is required.
Pharmacognosy and Natural Products