Rift Valley Fever in Chronic Carrier and Liver Manifestation


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Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) causes certain type of hemorrhagic fever. In Egypt, during September 2017, RVFV was detected in samples from imported cattle (country of origin: the Sudan). Samples were collected from imported cattle from different localities in Cairo during October, November, December 2017. This study proves that RVFV causes chronic diseases and carriers are present in the endemic areas.

The RVFV main arthropod hosts are mosquitoes. Man and wide range of mammal’s species are susceptible of variables degree. Cattle are highly susceptible. RVFV that isolated during 1977 epizootic in Egypt showed spherical viral particles, 100 nm in diameter.

RVFV has three segments, negative or ambisense single stranded RNA (SsRNA) genome. The small (S) segment encodes for a nucleoprotein (N), the non-structural protein (NSs), which supposed to help the virus to evade the host immune system, the polymerase encoded on the large (L) segment. The medium (M) segment encodes two non-structural proteins, NSm1 and NSm2, and two envelope glycoproteins, (Gn and Gc).

This study was conducted on the cattle imported from the Sudan which are usually a free grazing breeds (African breed) living in south Sudan. The environmental conditions and the endemic status of country of origin are serious factors for the spreading of infectious diseases by living animal transportation. Cattles in the Sudan were not receiving RVFV vaccine.

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